We would like to thank the individuals and organisations that enabled this research to take place. The researchers came from three organisations and we thank them. The Commonwealth Centre for Education (CCE), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, which funded the research; the Human Science Research Council (HSRC), Cape Town, SA and the Aga Khan University Institute for Educational Development (East Africa), Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. We would like also to thank Duncan Scott and Busi Magazi at the HSRC who gave of their time and effort in collecting and managing the data and writing, as did Mary Cobbett at the CCE, who helped in the final stages. We thank the Ministries and Department of education in Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania for giving permission for this research. We owe the greatest thanks to the teachers, students and stakeholders in the schools we worked in. Research makes great demands on colleagues in schools and we are grateful for their time and co-operation.