From Earth to Moon/Teacher Notes
The title of this session comes from the HBO series fronted by Tom Hanks made in the years following the Apollo 13 movie. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/From_the_Earth_to_the_Moon_(TV_miniseries). The main aim here is to tell the story of how, why and when people last walked on the Moon.
- The Moon has always been an important mysterious light in the nights sky
- Many myths and historical events are linked to the sky, Moon and stars
- - Stonehenge: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge
- - Egyptian pyramids laid out in the pattern of constellations (Orion): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_Correlation_Theory
- - Aristarchus – First heliocentric model – Eclipse calendars etc.: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristarchus_of_Samos
- - The Middle Ages... not much else happened – in fact a lot was forgotten... pictures are some examples of the best lunar drawings of the era.
- Eugene Shoemaker and the first theories of crater dynamics, first planetary geologist, involved in the proof that there were many asteroid craters on the Moon – potential to be an astronaut until diagnosis with rare condition. Trained all Apollo astronauts in geology. http://en.wikipedia.org
- Video: The speech by John F. Kennedy at Rice University in Texas, http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/jfk-space.htm
- John F. Kennedy would die before his dream could be realised. America’s decision to go to the Moon was as much political as it was scientific. Introduce cold war dynamics.
- Ranger 7 – First USA probe to take close up images of the Moon. Impact mission – not really a “landing” – July 1964. Rangers 1-6 either broke down before reaching the Moon or missed it entirely... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ranger_program
- Luna 9 – first soft landing on the Moon – Russian Probe. Later Luna missions would land – collect and return soil samples. The Russians would focus on this technology whilst the Americans focused on manned missions. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_programme
- Gemini program. USA series of missions to test all technologies needed for a moon shot. Video - Following on from the mercury program with Alan Shepherd becoming the first American in space – Gemini was a great success paving the way for Apollo.
- Apollo 1 – Tragic loss of life during a “plugs out” test on the launch pad. Required a major redesign. I often demonstrate something burning in a pure oxygen environment to show the risks of this approach. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_1
- Apollo 4, 5 and 6 were unmanned tests.
- Apollo 7 – Manned Earth orbit Test. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7
- Apollo 8 – Lunar Manned Free Return Test, Earthrise Picture taken http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8
- Apollo 9 – Test on lunar Lander in Earth Orbit. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_9
- Apollo 10 – Test on full system in Lunar Orbit
- - Got to within 16km of the surface of the moon. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10
- Apollo 11 – Landed and Video – Apollo 11 landing on the Moon
- Apollo 12 – Landed next to Surveyor 3 (previous unmanned probe) to allow collection of parts of the lander for analysis. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_12
- Apollo 13 – A successful Failure – Used Apollo 8’s pre-tested free return trajectory. Video – Apollo 13 movie trailer http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_13
- Apollo 14
- - Played golf on the moon using a makeshift club
- - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_14
- - US public starting to lose interest
- Apollo 15
- - Longer stay on the moon than before – Lunar rover used
- - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_15
- Apollo 16 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_16
- Apollo 17
- - First scientist on the moon (Schmitt)
- - First night launch
- - Last mission (USA had beaten the Russians and so little political will remained for huge costs.)
- - Schmitt last man on the moon.
- - 3D picture – works with red and Green Gels http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17
- Video is of Apollo 17 leaving the surface. Had to be controlled remotely and with a 4 second time lag from Huston. Video – Apollo 17 leaving the Moon
- Moon Map – Green Triangles are Apollo landings
- - Reds and Yellows are unmanned probes.
- - Apollo near equator to aid take-off due to angular momentum.
- The Future – Potential for mars? Eden project... Mars 500 program. Technical challenges etc. Video – Barak Obama Cancels a return to the Moon
Useful cloudy weather applications
- ESA Astronaut tests - http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Astronaut_Selection/SEMJOSRHKHF_0.html
- Build a Model Moon Base