OER4Schools/Facilitation/Levels of Participation

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Resource details
Title Levels of Participation
Topic OER4Schools,  Teacher Education Resources for Sub-Saharan Africa



This resource is part of the OER4Schools programme.

Sherry Arnstein, writing in 1969 about citizen involvement in planning in the United States, described an eight-step ladder of participation. David Wilcox altered this to five stances. The "five stances of participation" are:

  • Information
  • Consultation
  • Deciding together
  • Acting together
  • Supporting independent community interests

You can read more about this here: The Guide to Effective Participation - guide1.pdf (info).