Teaching approaches: Planning

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Teaching Approaches

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Planning is one of the most fundamental tasks in a teachers daily professional life. This need not always mean the creation of a 'lesson plan', but consideration of inclusion, differentiation, and how to create an engaging, interactive pedagogy is important for developing high quality teaching. Teachers could explore the resources here, and in curriculum development, learning objectives, curriculum planning, and planning for interactive pedagogy to explore this area in more depth.

Relevant resources

CPD Teaching Models
Concrete preparation – Action – Metacognition – Bridging - Mediation
This resource offers advice on planning(ta) for interactive pedagogy. Three sub-sections have been drawn from it (see related DfE resources).
CPD Sharing Learning Objectives and Outcomes
What will they achieve - outcomes, objectives, and their importance
This resource highlights the link between learning objectives(ta) and assessment(ta) for learning, and explores ways to engage in planning(ta) for, and write good learning objectives - which identify the learning to take place, as opposed to just the activity with which the pupils will engage.
CPD Structuring Learning
Thinking about sequencing and planning for high quality pedagogy
The resource includes relevant information regarding lesson and curriculum planning(ta) for high quality pedagogy.
CPD Teaching for Metacognition
Thinking about Thinking, in the classroom context
This resource describes some strategies to engage metacognitive reasoning(ta) - thinking about thinking, for example, asking pupils to think about their own learning techniques. It includes activities to assist teachers in planning(ta) for their own teaching.
CPD Planning for Inclusion
Planning for inclusion in your classroom
This resource discusses planning(ta) for inclusion(ta), in particular as related to active learning(ta), group talk(ta) and more generally interactive pedagogy.
Games Introduction to games
This courses provides an introduction to games(tool) in the classroom. The course will focus on freely available online games, which can provide a starting point for exploring their use in the classroom without investment in hardware and software. At the conclusion of this course you will have engaged in lesson planning(ta), ready for implementation in your classroom.
ICT Monsters using Scratch
Children using a computer programming language to create moving monsters
This activity developed the specific e-skills(topic) of programming and digital animation. It could be considered the first step towards enabling children to design and create their own games(tool) using sprites and user-input controls. Computer programming helps to develop investigation(ta) skills as it requires the use of a previously unknown language(ta) to execute commands, which also develops the skills of mathematical thinking(ta). Computer programming also involves the use of modelling(ta) and planning(ta) techniques. Because Scratch is an open source programming language, this also creates opportunities for homework(ta), as the children are able to download the software for themselves at home.
Learning objectives Writing Learning Objectives in Primary Science
How are learning objectives supposed to work? How can one achieve mastery in writing learning objectives?
This resource encourages teachers to think about ways to link learning objectives(ta) to the curriculum which also helps to conceptualise their teaching schemes. It also helps children to understand what they are learning and what they are aiming for. The resource brings together key ideas, looking at specific outcomes from activities, vocabulary(ta), differentiation(ta), resources and curriculum development(topic) and short term planning(ta). It could be used as a 'refresher' on ideas when planning lessons.
Literacy Developing Language in Primary Science
The resource would be particularly useful for PGCE students thinking about incorporating cross-curricular(subject) strands, or teachers looking to do the same, either in their own practice or in new curriculum development(topic) work.

Language development and the use of appropriate vocabulary(ta) is highlighted as important across the curriculum. Incorporating this consideration into science planning(ta) is important for meeting the target of developing language. The importance of language and talk in science – including through group work(ta), and Whole class(ta) dialogue – is highlighted elsewhere (and in the resource) but includes the ability to explain concepts, understand synthesising ideas (including those from other people and texts), and the need to read and write for different purposes, (including conceptual understanding, data presentation, etc). These are key ideas in communicating the scientific method(ta)

Questioning Questioning
Why Question? A unit exploring the use of questioning in your classroom
This resource discusses questioning(ta) and its relationship to engaging reasoning(ta), active learning(ta) and discussion(ta) as well as aspects of planning(ta) such as writing learning objectives(ta).
Science Primary Science Investigation
What is involved in 'doing a science investigation'? And what is there to assess?
This resource describes the process of doing an investigation for inquiry(ta)-based learning. Teachers could share practice(i) and lesson planning(ta) ideas using the list of pupil skills (e.g. observing). It also lists learning goals for investigation skills (e.g. observing, predicting, problem solving) and ideas for exploring different types of practical work(ta) in science.

It could be used for discussion(ta) or brainstorming on how to apply these skills to different content areas. The resource emphasises engaging pupils in the scientific method(ta) - using higher order(ta) thinking skills, group work(ta) and dialogue(ta) to facilitate knowledge building(ta)/reasoning(ta).