Teaching approaches: Modelling
1 Effective modelling
In order to be an effective modeller there are a number of steps you should take. Prepare the lesson well, particularly if you are going to conduct a demonstration that is new to you. If you are about to model something new for the first time, you might write out a script and rehearse what you are going to say (see resources in the) As you grow in confidence, it will no longer be necessary to write out a script but you will still plan exactly what you want the pupils to learn.
Take into account pupils’ prior knowledge and experiences. Model your thinking to explain links between an idea they have seen before and the one you are about to introduce, for example, in chemistry you may have used ping pong balls to represent atoms but in Year 8 different sized balls are used so that pupils can build molecules. Think out loud the connections and the reasons for developing or changing this model.
See also the section on demonstrations in maintaining a view of the class while writing notes or instructions for them by using an OHP, a laptop or an interactive whiteboard rather than turning your back to the class. By your behaviour when you are writing you are modelling the technique.
Maintain the pace of the lesson by using modelling for short periods only, especially if pupils are not used to this way of working. Until pupils’ listening skills have developed, model just a small part of an activity, for example, the conclusion of an investigation.
Repeat the modelling of a process whenever necessary. Some skills are only acquired through repeated practice.
Modelling processes with pupils involves
- establishing clear aims;
- providing an example;
- exploring thinking – yours and the pupils;
- demonstrating the process;
- working together through the example;
- providing prompts (or scaffolds) as appropriate;
- providing an opportunity for pupils to work themselves (alone or in pairs);
- drawing out the key learning.
Teachers can model a range of processes, for example, how to use a particular piece of equipment appropriately and accurately; how to record data; how to evaluate an investigation; how to plan a more complex investigation; how to draw a particular graph or representation; how to obtain specific information from a text or from the Internet; how to answer a test question; how to improve writing; how to improve the quality of talk (Adapted from Modelling Introduction, section Body).
2 Relevant resources
|ICT||Monsters using Scratch|
Children using a computer programming language to create moving monstersThis activity developed the specific e-skills(topic) of programming and digital animation. It could be considered the first step towards enabling children to design and create their own games(tool) using sprites and user-input controls. Computer programming helps to develop investigation(ta) skills as it requires the use of a previously unknown language(ta) to execute commands, which also develops the skills of mathematical thinking(ta). Computer programming also involves the use of modelling(ta) and planning(ta) techniques. Because Scratch is an open source programming language, this also creates opportunities for homework(ta), as the children are able to download the software for themselves at home.
|Investigation||Persuasive argument and evidence-based conclusions about the best car|
Got a new motor? Talk about your investigation like a scientistThis activity involving inquiry(ta)aims to develop children’s ability to support their conclusions with evidence. The teacher will model(ta) and encourage the use of the language(ta) that children require to discuss or present their data. The teacher can explain their rationale using the lesson below.
|Modelling||Modelling Scientific Writing|
How do we help pupils to express themselves adequately when they write?This resource discusses methods for modelling(ta) scientific writing, and the structure and kinds of language(ta) used in such writing. It provides exemplars and suggests activities to assist teachers to apply these methods to their own practice.
|Modelling||Models in Science|
Teachers use models to help pupils make sense of their observationsAn opportunity for teachers to discuss the use of modelling(ta) and visualisation(ta) in Key stage 3 science
|Visualisation||GeoGebra STEM Exploration|
Develop 'real world' GeoGebra mathematical modelling applications which reach out to a wide range of users both students and teachersThe half-term activity consists of 3 half-day workshops interspersed with home-working and on-line collaboration. Each workshop is part tutorial and help in GeoGebra, part development, presentation and feedback on their emerging work. The three half-day sessions become gradually less structured as students become more confident taking the initiative in developing their own work:
An initial GeoGebra tutorial session features ‘real life’ examples such as mathematical modelling(ta) and visualisation(ta) from photographs of patterns and structure in flowers and architecture; exercises such as “math aerobics” where students model algebraic functions kinaesthetically; and data analysis and exploration such as from astronomy (Kepler's 3rd law) and athletic performance (Usain Bolt’s 100m sprints). Realistic examples such as these, or from students’ previous work, are essential to get the ball rolling. Following this, the onus is very much on the student’s own initiative. The focus on ‘real life’ and student ownership of ideas and project development increases student motivation.
The activity engages pupils in group talk(ta), mathematical thinking(ta) and vocabulary(ta). This open ended(ta) task develops higher order(ta) reasoning(ta), and encourages whole class(ta) discussion(ta)/questioning(ta) and inquiry(ta) projects.